Edward Holmes (1797–1859), originally a student of music, became a writer specializing in musical criticism. A pupil of Vincent Novello, he came to know Shelley, Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, and Charles Lamb, as well as Attwood, Cramer, and Mendelssohn. These influences, together with his enthusiasm for Mozart and Bach, formed the basis of his critical stance. Among his books are A Ramble Among the Musicians of Germany and the pioneering The Life of Mozart. He also contributed significantly to such journals as the Atlas, the Spectator, Fraser's Magazine, and Musical Times, giving English music criticism technical authority and intellectual respectability.