Eric Berne (1910–1970), as the originator of transactional analysis, attained recognition for developing one of the most innovative approaches to modern psychotherapy. Born in Montreal, Canada, he earned his undergraduate degree and M.D. at McGill University and completed a residency in psychiatry at Yale University. In his writings and teachings, Dr. Berne outlined the principles of his system in such works as Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy, The Structure and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups, Principles of Group Treatment, A Layman's Guide to Psychiatry, and What Do You Say After You Say Hello? Before his death in 1970, he was a practicing psychiatrist in California and held many important posts in psychiatric professional organizations and clinics.