Karl Marx (1818–1883) was a German philosopher and political theorist whose ideas made major contributions to the development of communism and socialism. Born in Trier in the Kingdom of Prussia (present-day Germany), Marx attended the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin. While living in Paris, he met and became a close friend of Friedrich Engels, with whom he collaborated on a number of works, including The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848. His other notable writings include A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy and Das Kapital, in addition to many essays. Though largely ignored by scholars during his lifetime, Marx's theories gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death and had an incomparable influence on the political discourse and events of the twentieth century.